Translated from the Thai by Santikaro Bhikkhu
Thiện Nhựt phỏng dịch
Source-Nguồn: dhammatalks.net, ftp.budaedu.org, budsas.org, thuvienhoasen.org
An abundance of Pali terms are used in this manual. This reflects Ajahn Buddhadasa's advice that sincere student-practitioners of Buddhism should be familiar with the most important Pali terms and their correct meanings. Most of the terms used here are explained within the text. For easy reference and additional information this glossary is provided. We also include some key English terms so that they may be checked with their Pali equivalents. The translations and definitions found here may differ with those found in other books. To make the most of this manual, you need to understand how Ajahn Buddhadasa uses these terms. Even those who have studied Pali may find some helpful insights here.
Both Pali and English terms are listed in order of the English alphabet. Pali terms are defined and explained. When appropriate, we cite textual passages that discuss the term. English terms are not defined. You can find their meaning under the Pali equivalent which is given. In any case, it is important that you be wary of English terms found here and elsewhere. They seldom match the Pali terms completely and often carry inappropriate connotations. It is always best to learn the Pali terms and their proper meanings. Terms which appear only once or are of minor importance may not be included in this glossary.
acariya, teacher, master, (P. 42)
adinava, penalty, disadvantage, peril, harm: the hook within the bait (assada) the negative, lowly, harmful, or wicked aspect of a thing. (P. 119)
ajahn, Thai pronunciation of acariya.
ana, in-breath, inhalation, breathing in. The corresponding verb is
assasati, to breathe in.
anapanasati, mindfulness with breathing: to note, investigate, and contemplate a dhamma (thing, fact, truth) while being mindful of every in-breath and out-breath. In the Buddha's complete system of anapanasati a natural progression of sixteen lessons or dhamma are practiced in order to fully explore the satipatthana and realize liberation. (P. 17-19)
anatta, not-self, selfishness, non-selfhood, not-soul: the fact that all things, without exception, are not-self and lack any essence or substance that could properly be called a "self." This truth does not deny the existence of things, but denies that they can be owned or controlled, as well as be owner or controller, in any but a relative, conventional sense. Anatta is the third fundamental characteristic of sankhara. Anatta is a result of aniccam. All things are what 'they are and are not-self.
Aniccam, anicca, impermanence, instability, flux: conditioned things are ever-changing, in ceaseless transformation, and constantly arising, manifesting, and extinguishing. All concocted things decay and pass away. This is the first fundamental characteristic of sankhara.
anupassana, contemplation: sustained, non-verbal, non-reactive, uninvolved, even-minded scrutiny of a dhamma. The four satipatthana are the necessary objects of contemplation, thus: kayanupassana, contemplation of body, vedananupassana, contemplation of feeling, cittanupassana, contemplation of mind, dhammanupassana, contemplation of Dhamma.
apana, out-breath, exhalation, breathing out. The verb form is passasati, to breathe out.
arahant, worthy one, fully awakened being, perfected human being:
a living being completely free and void of all attachment, kilesa,
self-belief, selfishness, and dukkha.
ariya-sacca, noble truths: there are four which together are One Truth, namely: dukkha, the cause of dukkha is craving, dukkha ends when craving ends, and the path of practice that lends to the end of dukkha. The arahant, the truly enlightened being, has penetrated these truths thoroughly.
assada, bait, charm, attractiveness: the tasty morsel hiding the hook (adinava): the lovely, satisfying, infatuating, positive quality of a thing. (P. 119)
atta, self, ego, soul: the illusion (mental concoction) that there is some personal, separate "I" in life. Although theories about it abound, all are mere speculation about something that exists only in our imaginations. In a conventional sense the atta can be .a useful concept (belief, perception), but it ultimately has no validity. That conventional "self' is not-self (anatta). No personal, independent, self-existing, free-willing substance can be found anywhere, whether within or without human life and experience.
avijja, not-knowing, ignorance, wrong knowledge, foolishness: the lack, partial or total, of vijja (correct knowledge).
ayatana, sense media: there are two aspects or sets of ayatana, internal and external. The internal ayatana are the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body, and mind (mental-sense), that is, the six sense doors, the sense organs and their corresponding portions of the nervous system. The external ayatana are forms; sounds, smells, tastes, touches, and mental-concerns, that is, the concerns or objects of sensory experience. Nibbana is called an "ayatana," an unconditioned ayatana.
bhavana, development, cultivation, meditation: to produce or make happen. In particular, to cultivate skillful wholesome qualities of mind. Citta bhavana (mental development) is preferable to the vague and often confused "meditation."
bojjhanga, factors of awakening enlightenment factors: these seven mental factors must be perfected, in succession, for the mind to be liberated. First, sati (mindfulness) fixes on a certain dhamma. Then, dhamma-vicaya (analysis of dhamma) investigates that thing subtlety, precisely, and profoundly. Next, viriya (energy, effort) arises, which leads to piti (contentment). Then, the mind develops passaddhi (tranquility) because of that contentment, such that there is samadhi (concentration) in the contemplation of that dhamma. Lastly, samddhi is continuously and evenly guarded by upekkha (equanimity) as the Truth of that dhamma and all Dhamma is penetrated and realized.
citta, mind, heart, mind-heart, consciousness: all aspects, qualities, and functions of the living being which are not material-physical. In a more limited sense, citta is what we call the consciousness potential when it "thinks." We also use "citta" to name that which is defiled by kilesa and which realizes nibbana. (Compare with mano and vinnana.)
citta-sankhara, mind-conditioner: the vedana are things which condition and concoct the citta. (P. 107, B. 14)
concentration, samadhi, calm-collectedness.
craving, tanha, foolish desire, blind want.
defilement, kilesa: namely, greed, hatred, and delusion
dhamma, thing, things: both conditioned phenomena and unconditioned noumenon.
Dhamma, Dhamma, Truth, Nature, Law, Order, Duty: the secret of nature which must be understood In order to develop life to the highest possible purpose and benefit. (P. 2) The four primary meanings of Dhamma are nature, the law and truth of nature, the duty to be performed in accordance with natural law, and the results or benefits that arise from the performance of that duty. (P. 6, 33-34)
dhamma-jati, nature: that which exists within itself, by itself, of itself, and as its own law. Nature encompasses all things, both human and non-human. (P. 7)
dosa, hatred, ill-will: the second category of kilesa, which includes anger, aversion, dislike, and all other negative thoughts and emotions. (P. 126)
dukkha, dukkha. suffering, misery, unsatisfactoriness. pain: literally, "hard to endure, difficult to bear." In its limited sense, dukkha is the quality of experience which results when the mind is conditioned by avijja into craving, attachment, egoism, and selfishness. This feeling takes on forms like disappointment, dissatisfaction, frustration, agitation, anguish, disease, despair from the crudest to the most subtle levels. In its universal sense, dukkham is the inherent condition of unsatisfactoriness, ugliness, and misery in all impermanent, conditioned things (sankhara). This second fundamental characteristic is a result of aniccam, impermanent things cannot satisfy our wants and desires no matter how hard we try (and cry). The inherent decay and dissolution of things is misery. .
ekaggatta, one-pointedness: to have a single peak, focus, or pinnacle. The state in which the flow of mental energy is gathered and focused on a single object, especially an exalted one such as nibbana. (P. 88 & 90)
feeling, vedana, feelings. (Sometimes "feeling" means "mood, emotion, tactile sensation," and other things that 'are not vedana.)
idappaccayata, the law of conditionality (or causality), the law of nature: literally, "the state of having this as condition." All laws can be seen in idappaccayata. Because all creation, preservation, and destruction occur through this law, it can be called the "Buddhist God."
jhana, (Common translations such as "absorption" and "trance" are unsatisfactory, but we have nothing better.) as a verb, to gaze, to focus, to look at intently; as a noun, deep samadhi in which the mind locks onto one object exclusively. There are four rupa-jhana (where the object of jhana is material) and four arupa-jhana (where the object is immaterial or formless), making eight levels of successively more refined samadhi. These can be helpful, but are not necessary for the successful practice of Anapanasati. (P.89)
jhananga, factors of jhana: the functions or qualities of mind that exist within jhana. In the first jhana there are five factors: vitakka, noting the object; vicara, experiencing the object; piti, contentment; sukha, joy; and ekaggata, one-pointedness. The other jhana have successively fewer factors.
kalyana-mitta, good friend, noble companion: a spiritual guide and advisor. (P. 42)
kaya, body, group, collection, heap, squad: something composed of various elements, organs, or parts. Generally used for the physical body, either the whole body or its parts ("breath-body" and "flesh-body"). (P. 22, 71-72)
kaya-sankhara, body-conditioner: the breath, which conditions and influences the body directly. (Also can be translated "bodycondition.") (P. 73)
khandha, aggregates, groups, heaps, categories: the five basic functions which constitute a human life. These groups are not entities in themselves, they are merely the categories into which all aspects of our lives can be analyzed (except nibbana). None of them are a "self," nor do they have anything to do with selfhood, nor is there any "self' apart from them. The five are rupa-khandha, form-aggregate (corporeality); vedana-khandha, feeling-aggregate; sanna-khandha, perception-aggregate (including recognition, discrimination); sankhara-khandha, thought-aggregate (including emotion); vinnana-khandha, sense-consciousness-aggregate. When they become the basis for attachment, the five become the upadana-khandha.
kilesa, defilements, impurities: all the things which dull, darken, dirty, defile, and sadden the atta. The three categories of kilesa are lobha, dosa, and moha. (P.128)
lobha, greed: the first category of kilesa, which includes erotic love, lust, miserliness, and all other "positive" thoughts and emotions. See raga.
loka, world: that which must break, shatter, and disintegrate.
lokiya, worldly, mundane, worldly conditions: to be trapped within and beneath the world, to be of the world.
lokuttara, transcendent, above and beyond the world, supramundane: to be free of worldly conditions although living in the world.
magga, path, way: the noble eightfold path, the
magga-phala-nibbana, path, fruition, and nibbana: this compound (although the three terms appear separately throughout the Pali texts, their compound is found only in Thai) refers to the three activities that occur in rapid succession in the realization of Dhamma, Magga (path) is the activity of vipassana cutting through defilements. Phala (fruit) is the successful completion of that cutting, the result of magga. Nibbana is the coolness which appears once the defilements are cut.
mahaggatta, superiority, great-mindedness: a superior, better than usual state (of mind). (P. 130)
mano, mind-sense, mind: the name we give the consciousness potential when it is aware, feels, experiences, and knows; mind as inner ayatana (sense organ). (Compare. with citta and "vinnana")
mara; tempter, demon, devil: often personified, the real tempters are the defilements.
mind, citta or mano or "vinnana"
moha, delusion: the third category of kilesa, delusion includes fear, worry, confusion, doubt, envy, infatuation, hope, and expectation. (P.127)
nibbana, coolness: the ultimate goal of Buddhist practice and the highest achievement of humanity. Nibbana manifests fully when the fires of kilesa, attachment, selfishness, and dukkha are quenched completely and finally. It is to be realized in this lifetime. (M 182-3)
nibbuto, coolness, the one who is cooled: a coolness that occurs when, either spontaneously or through correct Dhamma practice, the kilesa subside temporarily Samayika-nibbana (temporary coolness) and tadanga-nibbana (coincidental coolness) are types of nibbuto. (P. 182)
nimitta, image, sign, imaginary object: in the context of Anapanasati practice, nimitta refers to a mentally concocted image that arises out of concentration upon the guarding point and which is used to further develop samadhi in step four. There are three stages: the initial image, images manipulated as a training exercise, and the final image which is neutral, refined, and soothing. (P.84-87)
nirodha, quenching, cessation, extinction: a synonym for nibbana, the end of attachment and dukkha. The lesson of step fifteen. (P. 161-3)
nivarana, hindrances, obstacles: semi-defilements that get in the way of success in any endeavor, especially mental development. The five hindrances are kamachandha, sensuousness; vyapada, aversion; thina-middha, sloth anti torpor; uddhacca-kukkucca, restlessness and agitation; and vicikiccha, doubt. (Do not confuse nivarana with nirvana, the Sanskrit nibbana.) (P. 152)
noumenon, asankhata: the one unconditioned, uncompounded, permanent dhamma, namely, nibbana. (P. 175)
panna, wisdom, insight, intuitive wisdom: correct understanding of the things we need to know in order to quench dukkha. Panna is the third sikkha (training) and the beginning of the noble eightfold path. Panna (rather than faith or will power) is the characteristic quality of Buddhism.
paticca-samuppada, dependent origination, conditioned arising: the profound and detailed causal succession, and its description, which concocts dukkha. Due to ignorance (avijja), there is concocting (sankhara); due to concocting, there is senseconsciousness (vinnana); ... mind and body (nama-rupa); … sense-media (salayatana); ... sense-contact (phassa); ... feeling (vedana); ... craving (tanha), ... attachment (upadana); ... becoming (bhava); .., birth (jati); due to birth, there is ageing and death (jara-marana); and thus arises the entire mess of dukkha. (P. 177)
patinissaga, throwing back, giving up, relinquishment: to stop claiming things to be "I" and "mine," and return them to Dhamma-Nature. The lesson of step sixteen; (P. 164)
phassa, contact, sense experience: the meeting and working together of inner sense media + outer sense media + sense-consciousness, e.g., eye + form + eye-consciousness. There are six kinds of phassa corresponding to the six senses.
phenomenon, sankhara; impermanent conditioned thing (sankhara).
piti, contentment, satisfaction, rapture: the excited happiness (pleasant vedana) that arises when one is successful in something. Piti is the lesson of step five. (P. 95-97)
prana (Sanskrit), pana (Pali), breath, life force, life: that which sustains and nurtures life. (B. 7)
pranayama (Sanskrit), control of the prana, breath control.
raga, lust: desire to get or have. Raga can be either sexual or nonsexual. See lobha. (P. 125)
sacca-dhamma, truth, fact, reality.
samadhi, concentration, collectedness: the gathering together and focusing of the mental flow. Proper samadhi has the qualities of purity, clarity, stability, strength, readiness, flexibility, and gentleness. It is perfected in ekaggata and jhana. The supreme samadhi is the one-pointed mind with nibbana as its sole concern. Samadhi is the second sikkha. (P. 141-144)
sampajanna, wisdom-in-action, ready comprehension, clear comprehension: the specific application of panna as required in a given situation.
sankhara, conditioned thing, concoction, phenomenon, formation: anything dependent for its existence on other things or conditions. There are three aspects of sankhara: concoctor, conditioner, the cause of conditioning; concoction, condition, the result of conditioning; and the activity or process of concocting and conditioning. (P. 74-75)
santi, peace, spiritual tranquility.
sasana, religion: the behavior and practice that binds the human being to the Supreme Thing (whatever we name it).
sati, mindfulness, recollection, reflective awareness: the mind's ability to know and contemplate itself. Sati is the vehicle or transport mechanism for panna, without sati wisdom cannot be developed, retrieved, or applied. Sati is not memory, although the two are related. Nor is it mere heedfulness or carefulness. Sati allows us to be aware of what we are about to do. It is characterized by speed and agility.
satipatthana, foundations of mindfulness: the four bases on which sati must be established in mental development. We investigate life through these four subjects of spiritual study: kaya, vedana, citta and Dhamma.
sikkha, training: the three aspects of the one path, of the Middle way. All Buddhist practices fit within the three sikkha: sila, samadhi, and panna.
sila, morality, virtue, morality: verbal and bodily action in accordance with Dhamma. Much more than following rules or precepts, true sila comes with wisdom and is undertaken joyfully. The first sikkha.
sukha, joy, happiness, bliss: literally, "easy to bear"; tranquil, soothing, pleasant vedana. Sukha results) from piti, which stimulates, and is the lesson of step six. (P. 102)
sunnata, voidness, emptiness: the state of being void and free of selfhood, soul; ego, or anything that could be taken to be "I" or "mine"; also, the state of being void and free of defilement.
tanha, craving, blind want, foolish desire: the cause of dukkha (second ariya-sacca), not to be confused with "wise want" (samma-sankappa, right aim). Tanha is conditioned by foolish vedana and in turn concocts upadana.
tathata, thusness, suchness, just-like-that-ness: neither this nor that, the reality of non-duality. Things are just as they are (impermanent, unsatisfactory, and not-self) regardless of our likes and dislikes, suppositions and beliefs, hopes and memories.
upadana, attachment, clinging, grasping: to hold onto something foolishly, to regard things as "I" .and "mine," to take things personally. (P. 148 & 150)
vedana, feeling, sensation: the mental reaction to or coloring of sense experiences (phassa). There are three kinds of vedana: sukha-vedana, pleasant, nice, agreeable feeling; dukkha vedana, unpleasant, disagreeable, painful feeling; and aduk khamasukha-vedana, neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant, indeterminate feeling. Vedana is conditioned by phassa (sense contact). If it arises through ignorance it will further condition craving. If it arises with wisdom it will be harmless or beneficial. This subtle activity of mind (not physical sensation) is not emotion or the more complicated aspects of the English "feeling." (Sometimes the word "feeling" must be used to translate Thai and Pali words other than vedana.) (P. 25 & B. 12-16)
vijja, knowledge, insight knowledge, wisdom: correct knowledge about the way things really are. Arises when avijja is removed. A synonym for panna.
vimutti, emancipation, deliverance, liberation, release, salvation: to get free of all attachment, kilesa, and dukkha, and realize nibbana. (P. 166-168)
vinnana, sense-consciousness: knowing sense concerns through the six sense doors (eyes, ears, etc.). The fundamental mental activity required for participation in the sensual world (loka), without it there is no experience. Modem Thai uses of vinnana include "soul," "spirit," and "spiritual," which, however, are meanings not found in the Pali term. (Compare with citta and mano.)
vipassana, insight: literally, "clear seeing," to see clearly, distinctly, directly into the true nature of things, into aniccam-dukkham-anatta. Vipassana is popularly used for mental development practiced for the sake of true insight. In such cases, the physical posture, theory, and method of such practices must not be confused with true realization of impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, and not-self. Vipassana cannot be taught. (B. 1)
viraga, fading away, dispassion, unstaining: the breaking up, dissolving, and disappearing of raga, of attachment. The lesson of step fourteen.
viveka, spiritual solitude, aloneness, seclusion: to be undisturbed in quiet solitude and mindfulness. There are three kinds: kaya-viveka, physical solitude, when the body is not disturbed; citta-viveka, mental solitude, when no defilements disturb the mind; upadhi-viveka, spiritual solitude, freedom from all attachment and all sources of attachment, i.e., nibbana.
vossagga, tossing back, relinquishment: the natural giving away by the liberated mind. A synonym for nibbana, same apatinissagga.
Other books by Buddhadasa Bhikkhu:
Anapanasati-Bhavana (very detailed explanation of theory and Practice closely following Pali texts)
Evolution /Liberation (occasional journal of Suan Mokkh)
For information please contact:
The Dhamma Study and Practice Group
309/49 Moo 2
Vibhavadi Rangsit Road
Tung Song Hong, Bangkhen
The Buddhadasa Foundation
Wat Cholapratan Rangsit
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Buddhadasa Bhikkhu (Slave of the Buddha) went forth as a bhikkhu (Buddhist monk) in 1926, at the age of twenty. After a few years of study in
Ajahn Buddhadasa has worked painstakingly to establish and explain the correct and essential principles of original Buddhism. That work is based in extensive research of the Pali texts (Canon and commentary), especially of the Buddha's Discourses (sutta-pitaka), followed by personal experiment and practice with these teachings. Then he has taught whatever he can say truly quenches dukkha. His goal has been to produce a complete set of references for present and future research and practice. His approach has been always scientific, straight-forward, and practical.